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EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM

EN 1993-1-10

May 2005

ICS 91.010.30

Supersedes ENV 1993-1-1:1992
Incorporating Corrigenda December 2005
and March 2009

English version

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-10: Material toughness and through-thickness properties

Eurocode 3 – Calcul des structures en acier vis-à-vis de la ténacité et des propriétés dans le sens de l’épaisseur – Partie 1-10 : Choix des qualités d’acier Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten -Teil 1-10 :Stahlsortenauswahl im Hinblick auf Bruchzähigkeit und Eigenschaften in Dickenrichtung

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 June 2003.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Image

Management Centre: rue de stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 1993-1 -10:2005: E

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Contents

Page
1 General 6
  1.1 Scope 6
  1.2 Normative references 6
  1.3 Terms and definitions 6
  1.4 Symbols 8
2 Selection of materials for fracture toughness 8
  2.1 General 8
  2.2 Procedure 8
  2.3 Maximum permitted thickness values 10
  2.4 Evaluation using fracture mechanics 12
3 Selection of materials for through-thickness properties 13
  3.1 General 13
  3.2 Procedure 14
2

Foreword

This European Standard EN 1993, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures, has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 « Structural Eurocodes », the Secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a National Standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2005, and conflicting National Standards shall be withdrawn at latest by March 2010.

This Eurocode supersedes ENV 1993-1-1.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the National Standard Organizations of the following countries are bound to implement these European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Background to the Eurocode programme

In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonization of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonized technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products – CPD – and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

EN 1990 Eurocode 0: Basis of Structural Design
EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN 1993 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures
EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

3

Eurocode standards recognize the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State.

Status and field of application of Eurocodes

The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognize that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the following purposes:

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2 referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonized product standards3. Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.

National Standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National annex.

The National annex may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e. :

  1. According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonized ENs and ETAGs/ETAs.
  2. According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall :
    1. give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonizing the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary;
    2. indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ;
    3. serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonized standards and guidelines for European technical approvals.

      The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

4

Links between Eurocodes and harmonized technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for products

There is a need for consistency between the harmonized technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4. Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products, which refer to Eurocodes, should clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account.

National annex for EN 1993-1-10

This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. The National Standard implementing EN 1993-1-10 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters for the design of steel structures to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-10 through clauses:

  1. see Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.
5

1 General

1.1 Scope

  1. EN 1993-1-10 contains design guidance for the selection of steel for fracture toughness and for through thickness properties of welded elements where there is a significant risk of lamellar tearing during fabrication.
  2. Section 2 applies to steel grades S 235 to S 690. However section 3 applies to steel grades S 235 to S 460 only.

    NOTE EN 1993-1-1 is restricted to steels S235 to S460.

  3. The rules and guidance given in section 2 and 3 assume that the construction will be executed in accordance with EN 1090.

1.2 Normative references

  1. This European Standard incorporates by dated and undated reference provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments).

    NOTE The Eurocodes were published as European Prestandards. The following European Standards which are published or in preparation are cited in normative clauses:

    EN 1011-2 Welding. Recommendations for welding of metallic materials: Part 2: Arc welding of ferritic steels
    EN 1090 Execution of steel structures
    EN 1990 Basis of structural design
    EN 1991 Actions on structures
    EN 1998 Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures
    EN 10002 Tensile testing of metallic materials
    EN 10025 Hot rolled products of structural steels
    EN 10045-1 Metallic materials – Charpy impact test – Part 1: Test method

    Image text deleted Image

    EN 10160 Ultrasonic testing of steel flat product of thickness equal or greater than 6 mm (reflection method)
    EN 10164 Steel products with improved deformation properties perpendicular to the surface of the product – Technical delivery conditions
    EN 10210-1 Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels – Part 1: Technical delivery requirements
    EN 10219-1 Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels – Part 1: Technical delivery requirements

1.3 Terms and definitions

1.3.1
Image KV-value Image

6

Image The KV(Charpy V-Notch)-value Image is the impact energy Image text deleted Image in Joules [J] required to fracture a Charpy V-notch specimen at a given test temperature T. Steel product standards generally specify that test specimens should not fail at an impact energy lower than 27J at a specified test temperature T.

1.3.2
Transition region

The region of the toughness-temperature diagram showing the relationship Image KV(T) Image in which the material toughness decreases with the decrease in temperature and the failure mode changes from ductile to brittle. The temperature values T27J required in the product standards are located in the lower part of this region.

1.3.3
Upper shelf region

The region of the toughness-temperature diagram in which steel elements exhibit elastic-plastic behaviour with ductile modes of failure irrespective of the presence of small flaws and welding discontinuities from fabrication.

Figure 1.1: Relationship between impact energy and temperature

Figure 1.1: Relationship between impact energy and temperature

1.3.4
T27J

Temperature at which a minimum energy Image KV Image will not be less than 27J in a Charpy V-notch impact test.

1.3.5
Z-value

The transverse reduction of area in a tensile test (see EN 10002) of the through-thickness ductility of a specimen, measured as a percentage.

1.3.6
Klc-value

The plane strain fracture toughness for linear elastic behaviour measured in N/mm3/2.

NOTE The two internationally recognized alternative units for the stress intensity factor K are N/mm3/2 and MPa√m (ie MN/m3/2) where 1 N/mm3/2 = 0,032 MPa√m.

1.3.7
Degree of cold forming

Permanent strain from cold forming measured as a percentage.

7

1.4 Symbols

Image KV(T) Image impact energy in Joule [J] in a test at temperature T with Charpy V notch specimen
Image K stress intensity factor Image
Z Z-quality [%]
T temperature [°C]
TEd reference temperature
δ crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) in mm measured on a small specimen to establish its elastic plastic fracture toughness
J elastic plastic fracture toughness value (J-integral value) in N/mm determined as a line or surface integral that encloses the crack front from one crack surface to the other
Image Klc plane strain fracture toughness for linear elastic behaviour measured in N/mm3/2 Image
εcf degree of cold forming (DCF) in percent
σEd stresses accompanying the reference temperature TEd

2 Selection of materials for fracture toughness

2.1 General

  1. The guidance given in section 2 should be used for the selection of material for new construction. It is not intended to cover the assessment of materials in service. The rules should be used to select a suitable grade of steel from the European Standards for steel products listed in EN 1993-1-1.
  2. The rules are applicable to tension elements, welded and fatigue stressed elements in which some portion of the stress cycle is tensile.

    NOTE For elements not subject to tension, welding or fatigue the rules can be conservative. In such cases evaluation using fracture mechanics may be appropriate, see 2.4. Fracture toughness need not be specified for elements only in compression.

  3. Image P The rules shall be applied to the properties of materials specified for the toughness quality in the relevant steel product standard. Material of a less onerous grade shall not to be used even though test results show compliance with the specified grade. Image

2.2 Procedure

  1. The steel grade should be selected taking account of the following:
    1. steel material properties:
      • - yield strength depending on the material thickness fy(t)
      • - toughness quality expressed in terms of T27J or T40J
    2. member characteristics:
      • - member shape and detail
      • - stress concentrations according to the details in EN 1993-1-9
      • - element thickness (t)
      • - appropriate assumptions for fabrication flaws (e.g. as through-thickness cracks or as semi-elliptical surface cracks)
    3. design situations:
      • - design value of lowest member temperature
      • - maximum stresses from permanent and imposed actions derived from the design condition described in (4) below 8
      • - residual stress
      • - assumptions for crack growth from fatigue loading during an inspection interval (if relevant)
      • - strain rate Image from accidental actions (if relevant)
      • - degree of cold forming (εcf) (if relevant)
  2. The permitted thickness of steel elements for fracture should be obtained from section 2.3 and Table 2.1.
  3. Alternative methods may be used to determine the toughness requirement as follows:
  1. The following design condition should be used:
    1. Actions should be appropriate to the following combination:

      Image

      where the leading action A is the reference temperature TEd that influences the toughness of material of the member considered and might also lead to stress from restraint of movement. ΣGK are the permanent actions, and ψ1 QK1 is the frequent value of the variable load and ψ2i QKi are the quasi-permanent values of the accompanying variable loads, that govern the level of stresses on the material.

    2. The combinations factor ψ1 and ψ2 should be in accordance with EN 1990.
    3. The maximum applied stress σEd should be the nominal stress at the location of the potential fracture initiation. σEd should be calculated as for the serviceability limit state taking into account all combinations of permanent and variable actions as defined in the appropriate part of EN 1991.

      NOTE 1 The above combination is considered to be equivalent to an accidental combination, because of the assumption of simultaneous occurrence of lowest temperature, flaw size, location of flaw and material property.

      NOTE 2 σEd may include stresses from restraint of movement from temperature change.

      NOTE 3 As the leading action is the reference temperature TEd the maximum applied stress σEd generally will not exceed 75% of the yield strength.

  2. The reference temperature TEd at the potential fracture location should be determined using the following expression:

    TEd = Tmd + ΔTr + ΔTσ + ΔTR + ΔT Image + ΔTεcf       (2.2)

    where

    Tmd is the lowest air temperature with a specified return period, see EN 1991-1-5
    ΔTr is an adjustment for radiation loss, see EN 1991-1-5
    ΔTσ is the adjustment for stress and yield strength of material, crack imperfection and member shape and dimensions, see 2.4(3)
    ΔTR is a safety allowance, if required, to reflect different reliability levels for different applications
    ΔTImage is the adjustment for a strain rate other than the reference strain rate Image0 (see equation 2.3) 9
    ΔTεef is the adjustment for the degree of cold forming εcf (see equation 2.4)

    NOTE 1 The safety element ΔTR to adjust TEd to other reliability requirements may be given in the National Annex. ΔTR = 0 °C is recommended, when using the tabulated values according to 2.3.

    NOTE 2 In preparing the tabulated values in 2.3 a standard curve has been used for the temperature shift ΔTσ that envelopes the design values of the Image stress intensity factor function [K] from applied stresses σEd and residual stresses and includes the Wallin-Sanz-correlation between the stress intensity factor function Image [K] and the temperature T. A value of ΔTσ = 0°C may be assumed when using the tabulated values according to 2.3.

    NOTE 3 The National Annex may give maximum values of the range between TEd and the test temperature and also the range of σEd, to which the validity of values for permissible thicknesses in Table 2.1 may be restricted.

    NOTE 4 The application of Table 2.1 may be limited in the National Annex to use of up to S 460 steels.

  3. The reference stresses σEd should be determined using an elastic analysis taking into account secondary effects from deformations

2.3 Maximum permitted thickness values

2.3.1 General

  1. Table 2.1 gives the maximum permissible element thickness appropriate to a steel grade, its toughness quality in terms of Image KV-value Image, the reference stress level [σEd] and the reference temperature [TEd].
  2. The tabulated values are based on the following assumptions:

2.3.2 Determination of maximum permissible values of element thickness

  1. Table 2.1 gives the maximum permissible values of element thickness in terms of three stress levels expressed as proportions of the nominal yield strength:
    1. σEd = 0,75 fy(t) [N/mm2]
    2. σEd = 0,50 fy(t) [N/mm2]       (2.6)
    3. σEd = 0,25 fy(t) [N/mm2]

    where fy(t) may be determined either from

    Image

    where t is the thickness of the plate in mm

    t0 = 1 mm

    or taken as ReH-values from the relevant steel standards..

    The tabulated values are given in terms of a choice of seven reference temperatures: +10, 0,-10, -20, -30, -40 and -50°C.

11
Table 2.1 : Maximum permissible values of element thickness t in mm
Steel grade Sub-grade Image KV Image Reference temperature TEd [°C]
10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50
at T
[°C]
Jmm σEd = 0,75 fy(t) σEd = 0,50 fy(t) σEd = 0,25 fy(t)
S235 JR 20 27 60 50 40 35 30 25 20 90 75 65 55 45 40 35 135 115 100 85 75 65 60
J0 0 27 90 75 60 50 40 35 30 125 105 90 75 65 55 45 175 155 135 115 100 85 75
J2 -20 27 125 105 90 75 60 50 40 170 145 125 105 90 75 65 200 200 175 155 135 115 100
S275 JR 20 27 55 45 35 30 25 20 15 80 70 55 50 40 35 30 125 110 95 80 70 60 55
J0 0 27 75 65 55 45 35 30 25 115 95 80 70 55 50 40 165 145 125 110 95 80 70
J2 -20 27 110 95 75 65 55 45 35 155 130 115 95 80 70 55 200 190 165 145 125 110 95
M,N -20 40 135 110 95 75 65 55 45 180 155 130 115 95 80 70 200 200 190 165 145 125 110
ML,NL -50 27 185 160 135 110 95 75 65 200 200 180 155 130 115 95 230 200 200 200 190 165 145
S355 JR 20 27 40 35 25 20 15 15 10 65 55 45 40 30 25 25 110 95 80 70 60 55 45
J0 0 27 60 50 40 35 25 20 15 95 80 65 55 45 40 30 150 130 110 95 80 70 60
J2 -20 27 90 75 60 50 40 35 25 135 110 95 80 65 55 45 200 175 150 130 110 95 80
K2,M,N -20 40 110 90 75 60 50 40 35 155 135 110 95 80 65 55 200 200 175 150 130 110 95
ML,NL -50 27 155 130 110 90 75 60 50 200 180 155 135 110 95 80 210 200 200 200 175 150 130
S420 M,N -20 40 95 80 65 55 45 35 30 140 120 100 85 70 60 50 200 185 160 140 120 100 85
ML,NL -50 27 135 115 95 80 65 55 45 190 165 140 120 100 85 70 200 200 200 185 160 140 120
S460 Q -20 30 70 60 50 40 30 25 20 110 95 75 65 55 45 35 175 155 130 115 95 80 70
M,N -20 40 90 70 60 50 40 30 25 130 110 95 75 65 55 45 200 175 155 130 115 95 80
QL -40 30 105 90 70 60 50 40 30 155 130 110 95 75 65 55 200 200 175 155 130 115 95
ML,NL -50 27 125 105 90 70 60 50 40 180 155 130 110 95 75 65 200 200 200 175 155 130 115
QL1 -60 30 150 125 105 90 70 60 50 200 180 155 130 110 95 75 215 200 200 200 175 155 130
S690 Q 0 40 40 30 25 20 15 10 10 65 55 45 35 30 20 20 120 100 85 75 60 50 45
Q -20 30 50 40 30 25 20 15 10 80 65 55 45 35 30 20 140 120 100 85 75 60 50
QL -20 40 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 95 80 65 55 45 35 30 165 140 120 100 85 75 60
QL -40 30 75 60 50 40 30 25 20 115 95 80 65 55 45 35 190 165 140 120 100 85 75
QL1 -40 40 90 75 60 50 40 30 25 135 115 95 80 65 55 45 200 190 165 140 120 100 85
QL1 -60 30 110 90 75 60 50 40 30 160 135 115 95 80 65 55 200 200 190 165 140 120 100

NOTE 1 Linear interpolation can be used in applying Table 2.1. Most applications require σEd values between σEd = 0,75 fy(t) and σEd = 0,50 fy(t). σEd = 0,25 fy(t) is given for interpolation purposes. Extrapolations beyond the extreme values are not valid.

NOTE 2 For ordering products made of S 690 steels, the test temperature Image TKV Image should be given.

NOTE 3 Table 2.1 has been derived for the guaranteed Image KV-values Image in the direction of the rolling of the product.

2.4 Evaluation using fracture mechanics

  1. For numerical evaluation using fracture mechanics the toughness requirement and the design toughness property of the materials may be expressed in terms of CTOD values, J-integral values, KlC values, or Image KV-values Image and comparison should be made using suitable fracture mechanics methods.
  2. The following condition for the reference temperature should be met:

    Image TEd ≥ TRd Image       (2.7)

    where TRd is the temperature at which a safe level of fracture toughness can be relied upon under the conditions being evaluated
  3. The potential failure mechanism should be modelled using a suitable flaw that reduces the net section of the material thus making it more susceptible to failure by fracture of the reduced section. The flaw should meet the following requirements:
  4. If a structural detail cannot be allocated a specific detail category from EN 1993-1-9 or if more rigorous methods are used to obtain results which are more refined than those given in Table 2.1 then a specific verification should be carried out using actual fracture tests on large scale test specimens.

    NOTE The numerical evaluation of the test results may be undertaken using the methodology given in Annex D of EN 1990.

3 Selection of materials for through-thickness properties

3.1 General

  1. The choice of quality class should be selected from Table 3.1 depending on the consequences of lamellar tearing.
    Table 3.1 : Choice of quality class
    Class Application of guidance
    1 All steel products and all thicknesses listed in European standards for all applications
    2 Certain steel products and thicknesses listed in European standards and/or certain listed applications

    NOTE The National Annex may choose the relevant class. The use of class 1 is recommended.

  2. Depending on the quality class selected from Table 3.1, either:
  3. The following aspects should be considered in the selection of steel assemblies or connections to safeguard against lamellar tearing:

    Figure 3.1: Lamellar tearing

    Figure 3.1: Lamellar tearing

  4. The susceptibility of the material should be determined by measuring the through-thickness ductility quality to EN 10164, which is expressed in terms of quality classes identified by Z-values.

    NOTE 1 Lamellar tearing is a weld induced flaw in the material which generally becomes evident during ultrasonic inspection. The main risk of tearing is with cruciform, T- and corner joints and with full penetration welds.

    NOTE 2 Guidance on the avoidance of lamellar tearing during welding is given in EN 1011-2.

3.2 Procedure

  1. Lamellar tearing may be neglected if the following condition is satisfied:

    ZEd ≤ ZRd      (3.1)

    where ZEd is the required design Z-value resulting from the magnitude of strains from restrained metal shrinkage under the weld beads.
    ZRd is the available design Z-value for the material according to EN 10164, i.e. Z15, Z25 or Z35.
  2. The required design value ZEd may be determined using:

    ZEd = Za + Zb + Zc + Zd + Ze      (3.2)

    in which Za, Zb, Zc, Zd and Ze are as given in Table 3.2.

14
Table 3.2: Criteria affecting the target value of ZEd
a) Weld depth relevant for
straining from metal shrinkage
Image Effective weld depth aeff (see Figure 3.2) Image Image Throat thickness a of fillet welds Image Zi
        aeff ≤ 7mm a = 5 mm za = 0
  7 < aeff ≤ 10mm a = 7 mm Za = 3
10 < aeff ≤20mm a = 14 mm Za = 6
20 < aeff ≤ 30mm a = 21 mm Za = 9
30 < aeff ≤ 40mm a = 28 mm Za = 12
40 < aeff ≤ 50mm a = 35 mm Za = 15
50 < aeff a > 35 mm Za = 15
b) Shape and position of welds in
T- and cruciform- and corner- connections
Image Zb = -25
Image Zb = -10
Image Zb = -5
Image Zb = 0
Image Zb = 3
Image Zb = 5
Image Zb = 8
c) Effect of material thickness s
on restraint to shrinkage
        s ≤ 10mm Zc= 2*
10 < s ≤ 20mm Zc = 4*
20 < s ≤ 30mm Zc= 6*
30 < s ≤ 40mm Zc = 8*
40 < s ≤ 50mm zc = 10*
50 < s ≤ 60mm Zc= 12*
60 < s ≤ 70mm Zc= 15*
70 < s Zc = 15*
d) Remote restraint of shrinkage after
welding by other portions of the structure
Low restraint: Free shrinkage possible
(e.g. T-joints)
zd = 0
Medium restraint: Free shrinkage restricted
(e.g. diaphragms in box girders)
zd = 3
High restraint: Free shrinkage not possible
(e.g. stringers in orthotropic deck plates)
zd = 5
e) Influence of preheating Without preheating Zc= 0
Preheating ≥ 100°C Zc = -8
*    May be reduced by 50% for material stressed, in the through-thickness direction, by compression due to predominantly static loads.
15

Figure 3.2: Effective weld depth aeff for shrinkage

Figure 3.2: Effective weld depth aeff for shrinkage

  1. The appropriate ZRd-class according to EN 10164 may be obtained by applying a suitable classification.

    NOTE For classification see EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-6.

16 17